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THE    CHINESE   MIND                      85
point of historic fact might have involved repeated trips and an encyclopaedic erudition, but his errors are difficult to check and the fact that he is correct is not immediately visible, and can only be appreciated because no writer in the three centuries after him has been able to establish a point against him.
Thus we see an opposition of "logic" versus common sense, which takes the place of inductive and deductive reasoning in China. Common sense is often saner because the analytic reasoning looks at truth by cutting it up into various aspects, thus throwing them out of their natural bearings, while common sense seizes the situation as a living whole. Women have a more robust common sense than men, and in times of any emergency, I always depend on the judgment of a woman rather than that of a man. They have a way of sizing up a situation in its totality without being distracted by its individual aspects. In the best Chinese novels, like the Red Chamber Dream and the Tehsao Paoyen (An Uncouth Old Marts Chats), the women are pictured as the soundest judges of situations, and their speech has a way of putting it as a rounded whole which is extremely fascinating. Logic without such common sense is dangerous, because when a man holds an opinion it is easy enough for him, with his academic brain, to evolve arguments "a," "b" and "c" to his own satisfaction, and yet he may be like the scholar, Mr. Casaubon, in Middlemarch who fails to perceive what every man could perceive in the life of his own wife.
This religion of common sense has a philosophic basis. It is interesting to note that the Chinese do not judge the correctness of a proposition by the appeal to reason alone, but by the double appeal to reason and to human nature. The Chinese word for "reasonableness" is cHingli> which is composed of two elements, cKing (jenctting], or human nature, and K (fienlfy or eternal reason. CKing represents the flexible, human element, while li represents the immutable law of the universe. Out of the combination of these two factors comes the standard of judgment for a course of action or an historical thesis.
Something of this distinction may be seen in the English contrast between "reason" and "reasonableness." It was Aristotle, I believe, who said that man is a reasoning, but not